Vaccines for viruses

The immune system has evolved to protect us against infectious agents, including viruses. Currently, with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there is great interest in exactly how the immune system protects against viruses and the development of anti-viral vaccines. This article is a general introduction to these areas.

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Immune responses to viruses

Immunological memory

In the case of COVID-19, antibodies against the external spike-protein appear to be most effective in preventing infection.

Vaccination

Different types of vaccine

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Vaccines undergo rigorous trials, similar to drugs, before they are released for general use.

Testing a vaccine

Why do some vaccines work better than others?

Final thoughts

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